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---- The IUKK02 TTAAii Data Designators decode (2) as: T1 (I): Observational data (Binary coded) - BUFR. T2 (U): Upper air. A1 (K): Radio soundings from fixed land stations (up to 100 hPa) TEMP (parts A, B). A2 (K): 180° - 90°E southern hemisphere. (2: Refer to WMO No.386 - Manual on the GTS - Attachment II.5) ---- Correspondence with the C13 common BUFR/CREX code table: (002/004) or (Vertical soundings (other than satellite) -- Upper-level temperature/humidity/wind reports from fixed-land stations (TEMP)) data type / data sub-type. ---- The bulletin collects reports from stations: 89859 Jangbogo
The message provides upper-air PILOT reports in BUFR format from land fixed UHF wind profiler station of 0-20000-0-07460 (Clermont-Ferrand). The station reports high-mode vertical profiles up of : Wind direction and Wind speed, Signal-to-noise ratio.
---- The SMAA01 TTAAii Data Designators decode as: T1 (S): Surface data T1T2 (SM): Main synoptic hour A1A2 (AA): Antarctic(The bulletin collects reports from stations: 89859 Jangbogo) (2: Refer to WMO No.386 - Manual on the GTS - Attachment II.5)
---- The SMAA02 TTAAii Data Designators decode as: T1 (S): Surface data T1T2 (SM): Main synoptic hour A1A2 (AA): Antarctic(The bulletin collects reports from stations: 89251 Sejong) (2: Refer to WMO No.386 - Manual on the GTS - Attachment II.5)
High-resolution simulations of the palaeoclimate are carried out throughout Europe. A set of climate simulations will be performed, based on the so-called time slicing technique. The simulations are performed with the state-of-the-art regional climate model COSMO-CLM (cosmo_4.8_clm19) at a horizontal resolution of 0.44° longitude and 40 vertical levels. The COSMO-CLM is a non-hydrostatic RCM with rotated geographical coordinates and a terrain following height coordinate (Rockel et al., 2008), developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) of the COSMO model (Doms and Schättler, 2003). The ECHAM5 output is used as a boundary data set for the dynamic downscaling approach. Detailed information on the model set-up can be found in Russo and Cubasch (2016). Russo, E. and Cubasch, U.: Mid-to-late Holocene temperature evolution and atmospheric dynamics over Europe in regional model simulations, Clim. Past, 12, 1645-1662, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1645-2016, 2016.
Products of liquid water path (LWP), rain water path (RWP) and integrated water vapor (IWV, also called precipitable water vapor (PWV)) are retrieved from microwave radiometer observations with auxiliary measurements from backscatter lidar and cloud radar. The nadir measurements were taken by the German High Altitude and Long range research aircraft (HALO) during the Next generation Advanced Remote sensing for VALidation campaign 2 (NARVAL2) in August 2016. Products are provided over tropical Atlantic east of Barbados. This experiment provides column integrated quantities as seen from satellite perspective but with higher spatially resolution (about 1 km footprint) than available from microwave satellites.
---- The bulletin is coded as BUFR code form: FM 94 (BUFR, Binary universal form for the representation of meteorological data) . (Refer to WMO No.306 - Manual on Codes for the definition of WMO international codes) ---- The IUKI02 TTAAii Data Designators decode (2) as: T1 (I): Observational data (Binary coded) - BUFR. T2 (U): Upper air. A1 (K): Radio soundings from fixed land stations (up to 100 hPa) TEMP (part A,B) A2 (I): 0° - 90°W Southern Hemisphere. (2: Refer to WMO No.386 - Manual on the GTS - Attachment II.5) ---- Correspondence with the C13 common BUFR/CREX code table: (002/004) or (Vertical soundings- Upper-level temperature/humidity/wind reports from fixed land stations (TEMP)) data type / data sub-type. ---- The bulletin collects reports from stations: 89251 SEJONG ---- WMO No.9 - Volume C1 'Remarks' field: ANTARCTIC TEMP
Global paleoclimate simulations are carried out on the basis of the so-called time slice technique. The simulations are performed with the state-of-the-art global circulation model ECHAM5 (Roeckner et al., 2003) at a spectral resolution of T106 (∼1.125°×1.125°) and 19 vertical levels. Different time slices are selected at a time interval of approx. 1000 years from each other, from 6000 years ago to pre-industrial times. For each time slice a simulation is carried out over a period of 30 years. As boundary conditions prescribed sea ice fraction and sea surface temperatures were used, which were derived from a continuous simulation with transient periods. This simulation was performed with the coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation model ECHO-G, consisting of the ECHAM4 (Roeckner et al., 1996) and the ocean model HOPE (Wolff et al., 1997), at a spectral resolution of T30 (∼3.75◦×3.75◦). Further information on simulation realization can be found in Wagner et al. (2007). Detailed information on the model set-up can be found in Russo and Cubasch (2016). Russo, E. and Cubasch, U.: Mid-to-late Holocene temperature evolution and atmospheric dynamics over Europe in regional model simulations, Clim. Past, 12, 1645-1662, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1645-2016, 2016.
A marine physical biogeochemical model simulation was performed for the year 2012 covering the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Only data for the western Baltic Sea are provided here. The model output has been validated in Neumann et al. (2018a, doi: 10.5194/os-2018-71). The work was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI, FKZ 50EW1601, https://www.io-warnemuende.de/meramo-en.html). The simulation was performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN, project id: mvk00054, zulassung.hlrn.de/kurzbeschreibungen/mvk00054.pdf). The model output data were processed and evaluated on servers provided by the project 'PROSO - Prozesse von Spurenstoffen in der Ostsee' (FKZ 03F0779A). The model simulation was forced by operational meteorological data of the German Weather Service (DWD). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition data of 50x50 km2 spatial resolution were taken from the 2016 reporting of the European Measurement and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) as presented in EMEP (2016, url: http://emep.int/publ/reports/2016/EMEP_Status_Report_1_2016.pdf) and available from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (2016, http://thredds.met.no/thredds/catalog/data/EMEP/2016_Reporting/catalog.html). Information on the riverine inputs, boundary conditions, and the model itself are provided in detail in Neumann et al. (2018b, doi: 10.5194/bg-2018-364). The concentrations of all prognostic biogeochemical model variables are given in nitrogen units according to the Redfield ratio.
We developed a global dataset of downscaled future projections developed by applying a statistical method for climate model downscaling and bias correction. To develop the dataset, we applied the delta method, which comprises the sum of interpolated anomalies of each GCM to the WorldClim 1-km spatial resolution dataset. The GCMs were the 35 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models, for four representative concentrations pathways (RCPs). For each of these, we used the 30-year future periods named as 2030s (mean of 2020-2049), 2050s (2040-2069), 2070s (2060-2089) and 2080s (2070-2099) with three climate variables (mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures and monthly rainfall). From these, we also derive a set of bioclimatic indices.