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  • OceanRAIN version 1.0, OceanRAIN-M - Number Concentration Particle Size Distribution and Precipitation Microphysics, 37 along-track parameters plus 128 size bins for 8 ships, 692.000 precipitation minutes in total, temporally discontinuous data for each ship, 1-minute-resolution

  • OceanRAIN version 1.0, OceanRAIN-R - ODM470 Raw number count Particle Size Distribution and Precipitation Microphysics, 37 along-track parameters plus 128 size bins for 8 ships, 692.000 precipitation minutes in total, temporally discontinuous data for each ship, 1-minute-resolution

  • This directory (experiment) contains volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1998 to 2012. The usage of the data is described in Timmreck et al., (2018), datasets VolcDB1 and VolcDB1_3D. We provide 3D-plumes of observed volume mixing ratio perturbations in the lower stratosphere / upper troposphere typically derived from 10-day periods as nc-files and integrated values of injected SO2 mass with peak latitudes and altitudes as Fortran formatted ascii files (A11,5(1X,I3),I4,4(1X,I3),5(1X,I2),I3,4(1X,I2)) for at maximum 5 events at one time. Instead of A11 I2,I5,I5 can be used to read in the components of time. The data from Dec. 1997 to Jan. 2002 are based on L2-files of SAGE II (V7.0) provided by the NASA DAAC (Thomason et al., 2008). The data from Jul. 2002 to Mar. 2012 use the updated 5-day time series of MIPAS (Hoepfner et al., 2015), supplemented by SO2 derived from GOMOS extinctions (Bingen et al., 2017, with a corresponding table). 3D SO2 for 131 events in T42L90 resolution (ECHAM-grid in surface to about 80km).. same in T63L90 resolution (ECHAM-grid in Here a downscaling by 0.7 for low latitude eruptions is recommended because of less removal by overshooting convection (The data in the T42 file and in the table in Bingen et al 2017 were upscaled within the measurement uncertainty to overcome the model artifact in low resolution, this applies only for the ENVISAT part from Jul. 2002 on). Latitude from South to North, for use with ECHAM please reverse. The levels on the hybrid-grid in the grid files are defined as lev(x,y,z)=hyam(z)+hybm(z)*apsave(x,y), in Pa (apsave annual average of surface pressure or orography). Volcano_or_region_echam_merged_dd_mm_yyyy.txt: integrated SO2 mass injected (in kt), SAGE and ENVISAT period. The postscript-file is an example on the T42 grid, the *doc-file includes the volcano names for the data in the *.txt Files, see also (Smithsonian volcano database). Fluxes from outgassing volcanoes in the troposphere (below 200hPa), taken from AEROCOM (Diehl, 2012; Caution, filled with odd climatology after 2009, monthly, beginning in Jan. 1950) Subset beginning Dec. 1997.

  • Data contain dominating soil type in a grid cell for the whole world at 30 arc-second (~1km) horizontal resolution. The data are based on Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD), but reclassified according to the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) classification table of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for NOAH and NOAH-MP Land Surface Models (LSMs). The source of the data is HWSD version 1.21, provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), Institute of Soil Science - Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSCAS) and Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) in 2012 (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.21). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria). Horizontal resolution: 0.0083333333333333° Type/units: categorical/1-16 categories Missing_value: -9999(ascii file), 241.0 (WRF-bin) Projection: regular latitude longitude

  • OceanRAIN version 1.0, OceanRAIN-W - Water cycle components, 73 along-track parameters for 8 ships, 6.83 million minutes in total, temporally continuous data for each ship, 1-minute-resolution

  • Simulated 2D residual velocity fields in the inner German Bight were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Residual currents were obtained from coastDat2 barotropic 2D simulations with the hydrodynamic model TRIM-NP V2.1.22 in barotropic 2D mode on a Cartesian grid (1.6km spatial resolution) stored on an hourly basis for the years 1948 - 2012 (doi:10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_TRIM-NP-2d) and later extended until August 2015. The present analysis refers to the period Jan 1958 - Aug 2015. The spatial domain considered is the region to the east of 6 degrees east and to the south of 55.6 degrees north. All grid nodes with a bathymetry of less than 10m were excluded. Residual velocities were calculated in two different ways: 1.) as 25h means, 2.) as monthly means. Both types of residual current data are available from * RESIDUAL_CURRENTS_195801_201508 The directory contains sub-directories for years and months. Daily residual currents for the 13th of September 1974, for instance, are stored in * RESIDUAL_CURRENTS_195801_201508/YEAR_1974/MONTH_09/ while monthly mean residual currents for September 1974 are stored in: * RESIDUAL_CURRENTS_195801_201508/YEAR_1974/ All current fields provided were interpolated from the original Cartesian model grid to a more convenient regular geographical grid (116x76 nodes). Mean residual currents are stored in: * This data set contains residual velocities both on original Cartesian grid nodes and interpolated to the geographical grid. An example plot is provided: * mean_residual_currents.png For PCA, two residual velocity components from each of 12133 Cartesian grid nodes were combined into one data vector (length 2x12133), referring to 21061 daily or 692 monthly time levels. Results of two independent PCAs for either daily or monthly mean fields are stored in: * * Files contain three leading Principal Components (PCs) and corresponding Emipirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). Again EOFs were also interpolated to a regular geographical grid. PC time series are also stored in plain ASCII format: * PCs_daily.txt * PCs_monthly.txt For monthly fields the number N of variables (N=2x12133) is much larger than the number T of time levels (T=692). Therefore, to reduce computational demands, the roles of time and space were formally interchanged. Having conducted the PCA the EOFs were then transformed back to the original spatial coordinates (cf. Section 12.2.6 in von Storch and Zwiers (1999), Statistical Analysis in Climate Research, Cambridge University Press). A much larger number of time levels made even this approach prohibitive for the full set of daily data. Therefore, PCAs were performed for six sub-periods (1958-1965, 1966-1975, 1976-1985, 1986-1995, 1996-2005, 2006-2015(Aug)) independently. EOFs obtained from these six sub-periods were then averaged to obtain EOFs representative for the whole period. Corresponding PCs were calculated by projecting daily fields onto these average EOFs. IMPORTANT: In contrast with PCA of monthly data, the PCA of daily data INVOLVES SOME APPROXIMATIONS! EOFs on the original nodes were normalized to have unit lengths. The following figures, * daily_EOF1.png * daily_EOF2.png * daily_EOF3.png show the first three EOFs obtained from daily data, assuming that corresponding PCs have the value of one standard deviation. The following two plots, * monthly_EOF1.png * monthly_EOF2.png show the leading EOFs for monthly mean data. EOF3 is omitted as it represents just a very small percentage of overall variance (1.7%).