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  • This collection contains all measurements that have been performed in the frame of the EARLINET project during the period April 2000 - December 2015. Some of these measurements are also part of the collections 'Calipso', 'Climatology', 'SaharanDust' or 'VolcanicEruption'. In addition this collection also contains measurements from the categories 'Cirrus', 'DiurnalCycles', 'ForestFires', 'Photosmog', 'RuralUrban', and 'Stratosphere'. This collection also contains measurements not devoted to any of the above categories. More information about these categories and the contributing stations can be found in the file 'EARLINET_general_introduction.pdf' accompanying this dataset.

  • From 26 March to 22 April 2003, Germany and Finland carried out a joint expedition (ABSIS - Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Sea Ice Interaction Study) to test and improve the description of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction processes. ABSIS was part of the German ACSYS (Arctic Climate System Study) contribution supported by the Ministry of Education and Research and was connected with the RV Polarstern Winter Arctic Polynia Study expedition. The main objectives of ABSIS were to collect data sets to quantify and study: (a) the thermodynamic and dynamic interaction processes at the ice-atmosphere interface and (b) the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer, particularly the Arctic inversion. The latter is a nearly permanent feature over the sea ice. The Arctic inversion is particularly low and strong in winter and effects the exchange between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere as well as the interaction processes at the ice surface. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives various platforms were applied and placed within a 200 km2 area north of Spitsbergen during the expedition period 26 March to 22 April 2003: RV Polarstern and RV Aranda, a research aircraft (Falcon-20 of the German Aerospace Center), 11 automatic ice buoys, and one ice camp station close to RV Polarstern (8-18 April 2003 only). In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Aranda, ground data at RV Polarstern, ice station near RV Polarstern

  • KONTROL 1985 is part of research activities focused on organized convection phenomena as they are often manifested in organized cloud patterns like the well-known boundary layer cloud streets or open and closed cellular cloud structures. The experimental part of the investigations began with the experiment KonTur (Konvektion and Turbulenz) in September and October 1981. It continued with the experiments KONTROL in August 1984 and KONTROL in October 1985. All experiments took place over the German Bight in the southeastern part of the North Sea. The experimental concept based on the use of three fixed stations performing continuous aerological and surface observations and two aircraft conducting detailed observations during special periods. The stations were the island of Heligoland, the research vessel Valdivia and the research platform NORDSEE (54°42'N, 7°10'E). The aircraft were a FALCON-20 of DFVLR and a DO-28 Skyservant of the TU Braunschweig.

  • The field experiment FRONTEX 1989 (FRONT EXperiment) took place in the German coastal area of the North Sea between 2 May and 6 June 1989. It was coordinated by the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg and was primarily funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the priority programme "Fronten und Orographie". The scientific aim was the investigation of cold fronts moving in from the North Sea and reaching the coastal area. The different physical properties of sea and land surface (roughness, humidity, temperature, heat conduction and heat capacity) modify the frontal structure at landfall. The modification should first alter the boundary layer and is then communicated to higher levels, thus effects like convection and convergence will be found farther inland. The experimental concept was to monitor the passing front on all relevant temporal and spatial scales. To obtain this goal a large variety of measurement platforms was employed. Ground based remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at Heligoland, Schleswig, Hanover, Emden, Berlin, and on board the research vessel. Three research aircraft (POLAR-2 and POLAR-4 of AWI Bremerhaven and DO-128 of TU Braunschweig) were used to measure the frontal structure with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  • The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularlysuitable for dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean(from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to the Greece and Bulgaria and Romania in the East) and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. A suitable observing methodology has been established within the network, based on Saharan dust alerts distributed to all EARLINET stations. The dust alert is based on the operational outputs (aerosol dust load) of the SDS-WAS (Sand and Dust Storm- Warning and Advisory System of WMO), and the Skiron models. The alerts are diffused 24 to 36 hours prior to the arrival of dust aerosols over the EARLINET sites. Runs of measurements longer than 3-hour observations, typical for the EARLINET climatological measurements are performed at the EARLINET stations in order to investigate the temporal evolution of the dust events. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations of Saharan dust layers are collected in the "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database.

  • The field experiment FRAMZY (in German: Framstraßen-Zyklonen; in English: Fram Strait Cyclones) 2002 took place in the Fram Strait region between Greenland and Spitsbergen and between 76-83¿N during the period 25 February to 25 March 2002. It was the second field experiment (following FRAMZY 1999) on cyclones in the Fram Strait and their impact on sea ice. The objectives of FRAMZY 2002 were to sample a data set in order to understand the processes of cyclone generation and sea ice forcing by the cyclones and to estimate the quality of atmospheric models in analysing and forecasting the cyclones and the quality of sea ice models in simulating the cyclone impacts on the sea ice. FRAMZY 2002 also aims to clarify the role of Fram Strait cyclones in the large interannual variations of the North-to-South sea ice transport through the Fram Strait. To reach the objectives measurements were taken simultaneously in the atmosphere and of the sea ice and covered a wide range of scales from the synoptic (cyclone) to the turbulent scale (turbulent fluxes at the air-ice interface). Measurements were taken in-situ by 14 autonomous ARGOS ice buoys, the Finnish Research Vessel Aranda and the German Research Aircraft Falcon and were supplemented by satellite data from NOAA-AVHRR, RADARSAT and DMSP-SSM/I. FRAMZY 2002 was the second one in a series of five field experiments (1999,2002,2007,2008) carried out in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre 512 (Cyclones and the North Atlantic Climate System) funded by the German Science Foundation. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Aranda

  • The field experiment DAMOCLES 2008 (Hamburg Arctic Ocean Buoy Drift Experiment DAMOCLES 2008-2009) consisted of the deployment and tracking of 9 drifting autonomous ice buoys in the Arctic Ocean. Seven buoys were deployed in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean in late April 2008. Two more buoys were deployed in the Beaufort Sea and in the Laptev Sea in September and October 2008. The platforms report position, atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity, wind speed and ice temperature at 3-hourly time steps. The last two buoys additionally report wind direction. The aim of the experiment was to study the Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean interaction, especially the impact of cyclones on the formation and transport of sea ice. DAMOCLES 2008 and its predecessor DAMOCLES 2007 are a contribution to European integrated project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies) which is funded by the European Union. DAMOCLES is a contribution to IPY 2007-2008 (International Polar Year).

  • KONTROL 1984 is part of research activities focused on organized convection phenomena as they are often manifested in organized cloud patterns like the well-known boundary layer cloud streets or open and closed cellular cloud structures. The experimental part of the investigations began with the experiment KonTur (Konvektion and Turbulenz) in September and October 1981. It continued with the experiments KONTROL in August 1984 and KONTROL in October 1985. All experiments took place over the German Bight in the southeastern part of the North Sea. The experimental concept based on the use of two fixed stations performing continuous aerological and surface observations and two aircraft conducting detailed observations during special periods. The stations were the research vessel Valdivia and the research platform NORDSEE (54°42'N, 7°10'E). The aircraft were a FALCON-20 of DFVLR and a DO-28 Skyservant of the TU Braunschweig.

  • The field experiment BASIS 1998 took place in the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea in a boundary zone between the open sea and the ice-covered sea from 16 February to 7 March, 1998. BASIS 1998 as well as the field experiments BASIS 2001 and ALKOR 2000 and 2001 are part of the research compound BALTIMOS (BALTic sea Integrated MOdel System). BALTIMOS in turn is part of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). The overall objective of all eight field experiments (ALKOR and BASIS) was to collect a comprehensive data set suited to validate the coupled model system BALTIMOS for the Baltic Sea region. The observations mainly focus on: - the atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes and the air-sea-ice interaction over areas with inhomogeneous sea ice cover - the atmospheric boundary layer structure over open water under different synoptic conditions such as cold-air advection, warm-air advection or frontal passages. Observations during BASIS 2001 were made at three land stations and the Finnish research vessel Aranda. All stations performed radiosonde measurements. The German research aircraft Falcon had six flight missions with measurements of meteorological parameters and turbulent fluxes. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: meteorological stations Kokkola, Umea, Merikarvia, ground data at RV Aranda

  • Since the beginning of CALIPSO observations in June 2006 EARLINET has performed correlative measurements during nearby overpasses of the satellite at individual stations following a dedicated observational strategy. The EARLINET-CALIPSO correlative measurement plan considers the criteria established in the CALIPSO validation plan (http://calipsovalidation.hamptonu.edu). Participating EARLINET stations perform measurements, as close in time as possible and for a period of at least 30 min up to several hours, when CALIPSO overpasses their location within a horizontal radius of 100 km. Within the 16-day observational cycle of CALIPSO each station is overpassed within this distance 1-2 times during daytime (typically between 1100 and 1400 UTC) and 1-2 times during night time (typically between 0000 and 0300 UTC). Additional measurements are performed, mainly on a non-regular basis, when CALIPSO overpasses a neighboring station in order to study the horizontal variability of the aerosol distribution. The time schedule for correlative observations is calculated starting from the high-resolution ground-track data provided by NASA, and is updated and distributed to whole network weekly. The EARLINET-CALIPSO correlative dataset represents a statistically significant data set to be used for the validation and full exploitation of the CALIPSO mission, for studying the representativeness of cross sections along an orbit against network observations on a continental scale, and for supporting the continuous, harmonized observation of aerosol and clouds with remote-sensing techniques from space over long time periods.