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  • The field experiments ALKOR 2000 (consisting of three cruises: ALKOR 4/2000, 6/2000, 10/2000) and ALKOR 2001 (4/2001, 6/2001, 10/2001) took place in the central Baltic Sea. The six cruises of the German Research Vessel Alkor with duration of about seven days each led to a point of the Baltic Sea which is most remote from the adjacent lands and additionally a grid point of regional climate model REMO. The ALKOR experiments as well as BASIS 1998 and BASIS 2001 are part of the research compound BALTIMOS (BALTic sea Integrated MOdel System). BALTIMOS in turn is part of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). The overall objective of all eight field experiments (ALKOR and BASIS) was to collect a comprehensive data set suited to validate the coupled model system BALTIMOS for the Baltic Sea region. The observations mainly focus on: - the atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes and the air-sea-ice interaction over areas with inhomogeneous sea ice cover - the atmospheric boundary layer structure over open water under different synoptic conditions such as cold-air advection, warm-air advection or frontal passages. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Alkor

  • The FRAMZY 2008 experiment aimed at the measurement of the sea ice drift in the Fram Strait and its relation to the atmospheric forcing, primarily to that by cyclones. FRAMZY 2008 was the fourth experiment with this objective and followed the FRAMZY experiments in 1999, 2002 and 2007. On 20 January 2008, seven CALIB (Compact Air-Launch Ice Buoys) buoys were deployed from a transport aircraft in a regular array of 200 km by 100 km size centered at 82.6¿N, 1.0¿E in the northern part of Fram Strait. Buoys measured autonomously air pressure, temperature and position at approximately one-hourly intervals and transmitted the data via the Argos satellite system. The lifetime of the buoys before they were lost at the ice edge or due to the breaking of ice was between 7 and 39 days (final date 28 February 2008). The southernmost position reached by a buoy after 39 days was 76.2¿N, -12.0¿E, corresponding to an average drift speed of 16.9 km per day or 0.20 ms-1. During the FRAMZY 2008 period eight cyclones passed through Fram Strait. The paper presents details of the ice motion and the atmospheric conditions. In the appendix 12-hourly maps of sea-level pressure and surface air temperature as analysed by the ECMWF, daily maps of ice concentration and daily NOAA satellite images are presented.

  • EARLINET climatological lidar observations are performed on a regular schedule of one daytime measurement per week around noon (on Monday), when the boundary layer is usually well developed, and two night-time measurements per week (on Monday and Thursday), with low background light, in order to perform Raman extinction measurements. This regular schedule for observations minimizes the bias in the dataset possibly related to specific measurement conditions. The resulting dataset is used to obtain unbiased data for climatological studies. This dataset contains profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter and lidar ratio. Several aerosol extinction/backscatter datasets can be present for the same climatological measurement in order to provide profiles either with a better temporal resolution or with an extended height range by using a larger temporal average. This is by far the largest ground based dataset on the aerosol vertical distribution, and it is the only one which is collected systematically and is covering a whole continent.

  • KONTROL 1985 is part of research activities focused on organized convection phenomena as they are often manifested in organized cloud patterns like the well-known boundary layer cloud streets or open and closed cellular cloud structures. The experimental part of the investigations began with the experiment KonTur (Konvektion and Turbulenz) in September and October 1981. It continued with the experiments KONTROL in August 1984 and KONTROL in October 1985. All experiments took place over the German Bight in the southeastern part of the North Sea. The experimental concept based on the use of three fixed stations performing continuous aerological and surface observations and two aircraft conducting detailed observations during special periods. The stations were the island of Heligoland, the research vessel Valdivia and the research platform NORDSEE (54°42'N, 7°10'E). The aircraft were a FALCON-20 of DFVLR and a DO-28 Skyservant of the TU Braunschweig.

  • The field experiment DAMOCLES 2007 (Hamburg Arctic Ocean Buoy Drift Experiment DAMOCLES 2007-2008) consisted of the deployment and tracking of an array of 16 drifting autonomous buoys in the Central Arctic Ocean. The buoys were deployed in a quadratic array with 400 kilometres side length in the Siberian sector of the Central Arctic Ocean in April 2007. While drifting towards Fram Strait the buoys delivered at approximately 1-hourly time intervalls position, sea level pressure and temperature for several months with the last buoy transmitting until January 2008. The aim of the experiment was to study the Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean interaction, especially the impact of cyclones on the formation and transport of sea ice. DAMOCLES 2007 and DAMOCLES 2008 are a contribution to European integrated project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies) which is funded by the European Union. DAMOCLES is a contribution to IPY 2007-2008 (International Polar Year).

  • Aerosols originating from volcanic emissions have an impact on the climate: sulfate and ash particles from volcanic emissions reflect solar radiation, act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, and modify the radiative properties and lifetime of clouds, and therefore influence the precipitation cycle. These volcanic particles can also have an impact on environmental conditions and could be very dangerous for aircraft in flight. In addition to the routine measurements, further EARLINET observations are devoted to monitor volcano eruptions. The EARLINET volcanic dataset includes extended observations related to two different volcanoes in Europe Mt. Etna (2001 and 2002 eruptions), and the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland (April - May 2010 eruption). This dataset includes also events of volcanic eruptions in the North Pacific region (2008-2010) that emitted sulfuric acid droplets into the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS) height region of the northern hemisphere. The EARLINET volcanic observations in the UTLS are complemented by the long-term stratospheric aerosol observations collected in the Stratosphere category.

  • The field experiment FRAMZY (in German: Framstraßen-Zyklonen; in English: Fram Strait Cyclones) 2002 took place in the Fram Strait region between Greenland and Spitsbergen and between 76-83¿N during the period 25 February to 25 March 2002. It was the second field experiment (following FRAMZY 1999) on cyclones in the Fram Strait and their impact on sea ice. The objectives of FRAMZY 2002 were to sample a data set in order to understand the processes of cyclone generation and sea ice forcing by the cyclones and to estimate the quality of atmospheric models in analysing and forecasting the cyclones and the quality of sea ice models in simulating the cyclone impacts on the sea ice. FRAMZY 2002 also aims to clarify the role of Fram Strait cyclones in the large interannual variations of the North-to-South sea ice transport through the Fram Strait. To reach the objectives measurements were taken simultaneously in the atmosphere and of the sea ice and covered a wide range of scales from the synoptic (cyclone) to the turbulent scale (turbulent fluxes at the air-ice interface). Measurements were taken in-situ by 14 autonomous ARGOS ice buoys, the Finnish Research Vessel Aranda and the German Research Aircraft Falcon and were supplemented by satellite data from NOAA-AVHRR, RADARSAT and DMSP-SSM/I. FRAMZY 2002 was the second one in a series of five field experiments (1999,2002,2007,2008) carried out in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre 512 (Cyclones and the North Atlantic Climate System) funded by the German Science Foundation. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Aranda

  • The Fram Strait Cyclone Experiment, FRAMZY 1999, took place in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea region during April 1999. Using aircraft, ice buoys, ship and satellite measurements a data set was compiled to investigate the properties of Fram Strait cyclones, their cyclogenetic conditions on the large- and meso-scale, and their local effects on sea ice drift and sea ice distribution and, thus, on the freshwater flow through the Fram Strait. The data were used for validation of cyclone simulations with coupled mesoscale models of the atmosphere-ice-ocean system. FRAMZY 1999 was the first one in a series of five field experiments (2002,2007,2008,2009) carried out in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre 512 (Cyclones and the North Atlantic Climate System) funded by the German Science Foundation. In addition to the published datasets several other measurements were performed during the experiment. Corresonding datasets will be published in the near future and are available on request. Details about all used platforms and sensors and all performed measurements are listed in the fieldreport. The following datasets are available on request: ground data at RV Valdivia

  • KONTROL 1984 is part of research activities focused on organized convection phenomena as they are often manifested in organized cloud patterns like the well-known boundary layer cloud streets or open and closed cellular cloud structures. The experimental part of the investigations began with the experiment KonTur (Konvektion and Turbulenz) in September and October 1981. It continued with the experiments KONTROL in August 1984 and KONTROL in October 1985. All experiments took place over the German Bight in the southeastern part of the North Sea. The experimental concept based on the use of two fixed stations performing continuous aerological and surface observations and two aircraft conducting detailed observations during special periods. The stations were the research vessel Valdivia and the research platform NORDSEE (54°42'N, 7°10'E). The aircraft were a FALCON-20 of DFVLR and a DO-28 Skyservant of the TU Braunschweig.

  • The field experiment DAMOCLES 2008 (Hamburg Arctic Ocean Buoy Drift Experiment DAMOCLES 2008-2009) consisted of the deployment and tracking of 9 drifting autonomous ice buoys in the Arctic Ocean. Seven buoys were deployed in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean in late April 2008. Two more buoys were deployed in the Beaufort Sea and in the Laptev Sea in September and October 2008. The platforms report position, atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity, wind speed and ice temperature at 3-hourly time steps. The last two buoys additionally report wind direction. The aim of the experiment was to study the Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean interaction, especially the impact of cyclones on the formation and transport of sea ice. DAMOCLES 2008 and its predecessor DAMOCLES 2007 are a contribution to European integrated project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies) which is funded by the European Union. DAMOCLES is a contribution to IPY 2007-2008 (International Polar Year).