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observational data

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  • The research aircraft DO-128, call sign D-IBUF, of the IFF (TU Braunschweig) measures numerous meteorological and chemical variables to get a better understanding of the atmospheric processes which cause the development of precipitation. The aircraft starts from the Baden Airpark and flys among different flight pattern which are described in the flight protocols. The meteorological variables are static pressure and dynamic pressure at the nose boom, surface temperature, humidity mixing ratio by a lyman-alpha sensor, dewpoint temperature by a dewpoint-mirror, relative humidity by an aerodata-humicap, air temperature by a PT-100 sensor, vertical and horizontal wind components by a five-hole probe and GPS, turbulence (100 Hz), shortwave (pyranometer) and longwave (pyrgeometer) radiance in upper und lower half space. The chemical variables are mole fractions of ozone, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitric oxides (NOx). There are also a few variables for the position and the velocity of the aircraft stored in the data file. Additionally to the measurements by the aircraft, up to 30 drop-sondes can be dropped out of the aircraft. By using these sondes, vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity and wind can be detected (see also the meta data describing the drop-sonde data). Special events are also marked in the data files by the event counter (e.g. dropping times of the drop-sondes, marks concerning the flight patterns etc.). The specific action or flight manoeuvre indicated by the event_number can be identified in the flight protocol.

  • The WOCE/ARGO Global Hydrographic Climatology (WAGHC) is concieved as the update of the previous WOCE Global Hydrographic Climatology (WGHC) (Gouretski and Koltermann, 2004). The following improvements have been made compared to the WGHC: 2) finer spatial resolution (0.25 degrees Lat/Lon compared to 0.5 degrees for WGHC); 3) finer vertical resolution (65 compared to 45 WGHC standard levels); 4) monthly temporal resolution compared to the all-data-mean WGHC parameters; 5) narrower overall time period; 6) calculation of the mean year corresponding to the optimally interpolated temperature and salinity values; 7) depth of the upper mixed layer. Similar to the WGHC the optimal spatial interpolation is performed on the local isopycnal surfaces. This approach diminishes the production of the artificial water masses. In addition to the isopycnally interpolated parameters parameter values interpolated on the isobaric levels are also provided. The monthly gridded vertical profiles extend to the depth of 1898 m, below only annual mean parameter values are available. Additionally, there is a dataset and a map available providing indexes for selected regions of the world ocean. Finally, the comparison with the last update of the NOAA World Ocean Atlas (Locarnini et al, 2013) was done.

  • The energy balance stations run by FZK/IMK-TRO measured high-frequency (20 Hz or 32 Hz) eddy-covariance raw data with either a Solent R1012 (Gill Instruments Ltd.) sonic anemometer or a Young 81000 (R. M. Young Company) sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 (LI-COR Biosciences) hygrometer above different target land use types. The measuring set-up was continuously running during the entire COPS measurement period in order to provide a complete time series of the turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat as well as carbon dioxide. Post-processing was performed using the software package TK2 (developed by the Department of Micrometeorology, University of Bayreuth) which produces quality assured turbulent flux data with an averaging interval of 30 min. The documentation and instruction manual of TK2 (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_1) and additional references about the applied flux corrections and post-field data quality control (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_2) as well as a document about the general handling of the flux data can be found in supplementary pdf-files within the energy balance and turbulence network (NEBT) experiment of the data base. The turbulent flux data in this data set are flagged according to their quality and checked for an impact of possible internal boundary layers. Additionally, the flux contribution from the target land use type intended to be observed to the total flux measured was calculated applying footprint modeling. Information and references about the internal boundary layer evaluation procedure and the footprint analysis are also given in the additional pdf-files. Pictures of the footprint climatology of the station as related to the land use and to the spatial distribution of the quality flags are included in the corresponding additional info pdf-files.

  • Dropsondes (mobile radiosondes) were launched by 5 mobile radiosonde teams. The launching sites were different from IOP to IOP. The positions are identical with the positions of the meteorological towers (imkmt1 to imkmt4). There have been no more than 4 teams operational on each IOP. The dropsondes are radiosonde-like systems. The maximum height is 12050 m above MSL. At this height, the sondes are separated from the balloon and then glide to the ground. Drop points are up to 70 kilometres apart from launching sites. For detailed information about the sites see supplement file and map.

  • University of Leeds radiosonde (Vaisala RS80 and RS92-SGP), Hornisgrinde site 2007-06-11 to 2007-08-30 University of Leeds radiosonde (Vaisala RS80 and RS92-SGP), Achern site 2007-06-05 to 2007-08-30

  • The Soundings were usually performed during the daytime of IOPs at two fixed locations. Scheduled launching times were at 05, 08, 11, 14, 17 and 20 UTC. Radiosounding at Burnhaupt le Bas, France: Sondes of the type DFM-06 manufactured by the Company GRAW (http://graw.de) have been used. Radiosounding at FZK, Karlsruhe, Germany Sondes of the type DFM-97 manufactured by GRAW (http://graw.de) have been used. From 26 July at 5:02 DFM-06 sondes of the same company have been used. On 25 July at 11:08 there was a test run of a DFM-06 sonde.

  • The positions of the meteorological towers (IMKMT1 to IMKMT4) are identical with the positions of the launching sites of the drop-up-sondes (IMKRS1 to IMKRS5). There have been no more than 4 teams operating on each IOP. For detailed information about the sites (including a map) and operating days see supplement pdf-file (cops_rsdu_imk_info_1). The parameters are: air_pressure: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a barometric pressure sensor that has a gill pressure port, 60s mean. air_temperature_at_1.8m: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a HYGROMER meteorology probe MP 400a, 60s mean. relative_humidity_at_1.8m: measured at about 1.8 m GND by a HYGROMER meteorology probe MP 400a, 60s mean. precipitation_amount: measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge (catchment area: 200 cm**2), 60s accumulated. wind_speed_at_4.5m, wind_from_direction_at_4.5m, virtual_temperature_at_4.5m: measured at about 4.5 m by a Young 3-D Sonic Anemometer, 60s mean.

  • The two energy balance station run by Meteo-France/CNRM measured high-frequency (20 Hz) eddy-covariance raw data with a Solent-HS (Gill Instruments Ltd.) sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 (LI-COR Biosciences) hygrometer above the target land use type corn. The measuring set-up was continuously running during July 2007 in order to provide turbulent flux data of momentum, sensible and latent heat as well as carbon dioxide. Post-processing was performed using the software package TK2 (developed by the Department of Micrometeorology, University of Bayreuth) which produces quality assured turbulent flux data with an averaging interval of 30 min. The documentation and instruction manual of TK2 (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_1) and additional references about the applied flux corrections and post-field data quality control (see entry cops_nebt_ubt_info_2) as well as a document about the general handling of the flux data can be found in supplementary pdf-files within the energy balance and turbulence network (NEBT) experiment of the data base. The turbulent flux data in this data set are flagged according to their quality and checked for an impact of possible internal boundary layers. Additionally, the flux contribution from the target land use type intended to be observed to the total flux measured was calculated applying footprint modeling. Information and references about the internal boundary layer evaluation procedure and the footprint analysis are also given in additional info pdf-files. Pictures of the footprint climatology of the station as related to the land use and to the spatial distribution of the quality flags are included in the additional info pdf-file corresponding to the individual station.

  • The two instuments were: Scintec Sodar (MFAS) at Igelsberg, located near a waste disposal site. The device measures wind vectors every ten minutes. Metek RASS-Sodar in Bad-Rotenfels, located near a sewage treatment plant. The vertical wind component in the netCDF-files has been set to dummy values due to quality check failure for this variable.

  • The energy balance stations run by University of Bayreuth continuously measured radiation and soil parameters over different land types with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz averaged to 1 min values within the data logger. After a check for plausibility the 1 min values have been averaged to 30 min intervals, which are provided in this data set. The instrumentation was different on each location. The following was measured depending on the station: - soil heat flux - soil temperature - volumetric soil water content - longwave radiation components - shortwave radiation components - tipping bucket rain gauge measurements The ground heat flux including the heat storage in the upper soil layer was determined from the measured soil heat flux, soil temperatures and volumetric soil water contents according to the 'simple measurement' (SM) method according to Liebethal and Foken (2007).