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  • High-resolution simulations of the palaeoclimate are carried out throughout Europe. A set of climate simulations will be performed, based on the so-called time slicing technique. The simulations are performed with the state-of-the-art regional climate model COSMO-CLM (cosmo_4.8_clm19) at a horizontal resolution of 0.44° longitude and 40 vertical levels. The COSMO-CLM is a non-hydrostatic RCM with rotated geographical coordinates and a terrain following height coordinate (Rockel et al., 2008), developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) of the COSMO model (Doms and Schättler, 2003). The ECHAM5 output is used as a boundary data set for the dynamic downscaling approach. Detailed information on the model set-up can be found in Russo and Cubasch (2016). Russo, E. and Cubasch, U.: Mid-to-late Holocene temperature evolution and atmospheric dynamics over Europe in regional model simulations, Clim. Past, 12, 1645-1662, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1645-2016, 2016.

  • Global paleoclimate simulations are carried out on the basis of the so-called time slice technique. The simulations are performed with the state-of-the-art global circulation model ECHAM5 (Roeckner et al., 2003) at a spectral resolution of T106 (∼1.125°×1.125°) and 19 vertical levels. Different time slices are selected at a time interval of approx. 1000 years from each other, from 6000 years ago to pre-industrial times. For each time slice a simulation is carried out over a period of 30 years. As boundary conditions prescribed sea ice fraction and sea surface temperatures were used, which were derived from a continuous simulation with transient periods. This simulation was performed with the coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation model ECHO-G, consisting of the ECHAM4 (Roeckner et al., 1996) and the ocean model HOPE (Wolff et al., 1997), at a spectral resolution of T30 (∼3.75◦×3.75◦). Further information on simulation realization can be found in Wagner et al. (2007). Detailed information on the model set-up can be found in Russo and Cubasch (2016). Russo, E. and Cubasch, U.: Mid-to-late Holocene temperature evolution and atmospheric dynamics over Europe in regional model simulations, Clim. Past, 12, 1645-1662, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1645-2016, 2016.

  • The purpose of the project DEKLIM-EEM is to reconstruct past interglacials based on proxy data and to understand the processes that are responsible for climatic changes during these interglacials by applying climate models. The data represent monthly average value of a simulation of the preindustrial climate (PRI) at around 1800 yr AD. Boundary conditions are equivalent to the other simulations of the project, apart from the concentration of greenhouse gases and orbital parameters: Greenhouse gas concentrations are derived from vostok ice core data: 280 ppmV CO2, 0.70 ppmV CH4 and 265 ppbV N2O. CFCs are set to zero. Orbital parameters have been calculated with the routine of Berger (1978): Eccentricity: 0.0167; Obliquity: 23.44; Perihelion: 282.7 The simulation has been started with the Levitus ocean climatology. ECHO-G is used as climate model. It is a coupled atmosphere/ocean model (ECHAM4_T30 + HOPE-E_T42er). The simulation was run on a NEC-SX6 (hurrikan). Atmospheric data were originally stored by the model every 12 hours. Ocean data is stored every month. As the boundary conditions are not time dependent, the time access is arbitrary. Related experiments: - ECHOG_A16_LIG control run, last interglacial (Eemian, 125 kyrBP, DEKLIM-EEM project), started with Levitus climatology, monthly mean values - ECHOG_A40_LGI: control run, last glacial inception (End of the Eemian, 115 kyrBP, DEKLIM-EEM project), started with Levitus climatology, monthly mean values.

  • The purpose of the project DEKLIM-EEM is to reconstruct past interglacials based on proxy data and to understand the processes that are responsible for climatic changes during these interglacials by applying climate models. The data represent monthly average value of a simulation of the Last Glacial Inception (LGI) at 115000 years before present(End of the Eemian). Boundary conditions are the same as in the preindustrial control run (ECHOG_A15_PRI), apart from the concentration of greenhouse gases and orbital parameters: Greenhouse gas concentrations are derived from vostok ice core data: 265 ppmV CO2, 0.52 ppmV CH4 and 270 ppbV N2O. Orbital parameters have been calculated with the routine of Berger (1978): Eccentricity: 0.0414; Obliquity: 22.41; Perihelion: 290.9 The simulation has been started with the Levitus ocean climatology. ECHO-G is used as climate model. It is a coupled atmosphere/ocean model(ECHAM4_T30 + HOPE-E_T42er). The simulation was run on a NEC-SX6(hurrikan). Atmospheric data were originally stored by the model every 12 hours. Ocean data is stored every month. As the boundary conditions are not time dependent, the time access is arbitrary. Related experiments: ECHOG_A15_PRI preindustrial control run (ca. 1800 A.D.; run a15), started with Levitus climatology. ECHOG_A16_LIG control run, last interglacial (Eemian, 125 kyrBP; run a16), started with Levitus climatology.

  • The purpose of the project DEKLIM-EEM is to reconstruct past interglacials based on proxy data and to understand the processes that are responsible for climatic changes during these interglacials by applying climate models. The data represent monthly average value of a simulation of the climate of the Last Interglacial (LIG) at 125000 years before present (Eemian). Boundary conditions are the same as in the preindustrial control run (ECHOG_A15_PRI), apart from the concentration of greenhouse gases and orbital parameters: Greenhouse gas concentrations are derived from vostok ice core data: 270ppmV CO2, 0.63 ppmV CH4 and 260 ppbV N2O. CFCs are set to zero. Orbital parameters have been calculated with the routine of Berger (1978): Eccentricity: 0.04; Obliquity: 23.79; Precession: 127.3. The simulation has been started with the Levitus ocean climatology. ECHO-G is used as climate model. It is a coupled atmosphere/ocean model (ECHAM4_T30 + HOPE-E_T42er). The simulation was run on a NEC-SX6 (hurrikan). Atmospheric data were originally stored by the model every 12 hours. Ocean data is stored every month. As the boundary conditions are not time dependent, the time access is arbitrary. Related experiments: - ECHOG_A40_LGI: control run, last glacial inception (End of the Eemian, 115 kyrBP, DEKLIM-EEM project), started with Levitus climatology, monthly mean values - ECHOG_A15_PRI preindustrial control run (ca. 1800 A.D., DEKLIM-EEM project), started with Levitus climatology, monthly mean values.