Volcanic island, tropical Pacific
In 1986, the Alert Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) Observatory was opened as Canada's first research station for the continuous monitoring of background concentrations of trace gases and aerosols. Currently, the Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory at Alert, NU is the most northerly site in the GAW Network. It is located on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada at 82º28'N and 62º30'W, far removed from the major industrial regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Alert is also the site of a military station (CFS Alert) staffed with about 60 personnel, and an Environment Canada Upper Air Weather Station. The Alert GAW Observatory is approximately 400 m2 in size and is situated 210 m above sea level and 6 km SSW of CFS Alert. It is a key site for Arctic atmospheric process studies, which have led to the discovery of such phenomena as Arctic haze, important chemical interactions of pollutants with snow surfaces, and rapid changes in the chemical composition of the atmospheric boundary layer during polar sunrise. The program at Alert has grown substantially since its inception. A team of Canadian scientists, working in partnership with international scientists, maintains the extensive measurement program at Alert. The measurement and research of trace atmospheric constituents thought to have an impact on climate remains a primary function for this station.
Coast of Arctic Ocean
Highest point on the Greenland Ice Sheet
Niwot Ridge is located approximately 35 km west of Boulder, Colorado, with the entire study site lying above 3000 m elevation. There is a cirque glacier (Arikaree Glacier), extensive alpine tundra, a variety of glacial landforms, glacial lakes and moraines, cirques and talus slopes, patterned ground, and permafrost. The research area is bounded on the west by the Continental Divide, with runoff on the two sides being destined for the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers. The alpine study area is reached by an unimproved road from the Mountain Research Station (2895 m) which leads to within 2 km of the main tundra research site, the Saddle (3528 m). The D-1 research site (3739 m), for which climate records are continuous from 1952, lies a farther 3 km from the road head. The Martinelli study area (3380 m) is located 1 km southwest of the Saddle, in the forest-tundra ecotone. The Green Lakes Valley lies immediately south of the western half of Niwot Ridge. It includes the Arikaree Glacier at its head (3798 m), and the wetland, Green Lake 4, and Albion research sites. The Green Lakes Valley and Martinelli sites are all within the City of Boulder Watershed which is closed to public access. Niwot Ridge, including the main alpine study site, is part of the Roosevelt National Forest and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO) and an Experimental Ecology Reserve (USDA Forest Service). A context-sensitive topographic relief map can be used to access the scenic views of the areas indicated above, as well as several others. C-1 is located in a Subalpine Forest, 9.7 km east of the Continental Divide. Topographic setting: ridge-top. Climate data completeness good from 1953 to present. Climate parameters measured include temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation, soil moisture and temperature, snow depth. At this site are also atmospheric and ecological research operations including the NCRS Snotel site, NOAA CMDL Carbon (CO2) and Halocarbon (anthroponenic greenhouse gases and staospheric ozone depletors, and surface ozone) measurements, National Weather Service precipitation gage, NOAA Climate Research Network (CRN) weather station, Ameriflux tower (forest ecology and atmospheric flux).